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HOME : Pre-Columbian Art : Costa Rican Jade : Atlantic Watershed Jade Double-Headed Figure Pendant
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Atlantic Watershed Jade Double-Headed Figure Pendant - PF.2164
Origin: Eastern Costa Rica
Circa: 300 AD to 700 AD
Dimensions: 3.625" (9.2cm) high
Catalogue: V6
Collection: Pre-Columbian
Medium: Jade


Location: UAE
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Description
In the context of Pre-Columbian art and archaeology, jade is a generic term that refers to any variety of hard, dense stones that were worked with great skill by native artists. Although jade is generally thought to be green, it can actually be a range of colors. Jade carving flourished in ancient Costa Rica for over a thousand years, roughly from 500 B.C. to 900 A.D., although the period of greatest artistic accomplishment lasted from 300 to 700 A.D. It is believed that jade working began during an extended period of agricultural abundance that allowed the ancient society to dedicate part of its energies toward the cultivation of artistic pursuits.

Jade was considered to be a sacred material by the ancient populations of Costa Rica, held in even higher esteem than gold. Generally, it was thought to symbolize that vital life force that sustains us all. The color green is naturally associated with verdant plant life. Specifically, jade was thought to symbolize the sprouting maize plant, that staple of the Pre-Columbian diet. It has also been suggested that jade represents water. Either way, we can be certain that jade represented the very essence of life itself.

To date, no native sources of jade have been discovered in Costa Rica, suggesting an extended trade network existed that imported this precious resource from Mesoamerica into Costa Rica where it was carved by local artists. Such trade also would have brought great wealth and likely reinforced the social stratification of the peoples. Jade may have served as a status marker to distinguish the elite from the masses and solidify their hold on power. We can picture an ancient ruler or shaman presiding over a sacred ceremonial adorned in brilliant green jade pendants and jewelry. The ancient Costa Ricans believe that the system of social hierarchy also extended into the afterlife. Therefore, jade objects were buried with the elite so that their power could be maintained throughout eternity.

There is a primal power about this polished figure, created from superb mottled jade. With abstract simplicity, it represents a human figure crowned by a double serpent head. Does this depict a God or merely a person wearing a ceremonial mask? In either case, the impression is one of magical, supernatural energy, of a being with more than ordinary powers. Even in a world that follows other path, we intuitively sense the magic aura of this piece.
- (PF.2164)

 

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