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HOME : Chinese Art : Ming Dynasty : Set of Seven Ming Glazed Terracotta Attendants and a Horse
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Set of Seven Ming Glazed Terracotta Attendants and a Horse - H.006
Origin: China
Circa: 1368 AD to 1644 AD
Dimensions: 16.5" (41.9cm) high x 5" (12.7cm) wide
Collection: Chinese
Medium: Glazed Terracotta


Additional Information: The Dimensions are for the Tallest Figure

Location: United States
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Description
Upon leading a victorious rebellion against the foreign Mongul rulers of the Yuan Dynasty, a peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang seized control of China and founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368. As emperor, he founded his capital at Nanjing and adopted the name Hongwu as his reign title. Hongwu, literally meaning “vast military,” reflects the increased prestige of the army during the Ming Dynasty. Due to the very realistic threat still posed by the Mongols, Hongwu realized that a strong military was essential to Chinese prosperity. Thus, the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to be ruled over by an elite class of scholars was reconsidered. During the Ming Dynasty, China proper was reunited after centuries of foreign incursion and occupation. Ming troops controlled Manchuria, and the Korean Joseon Dynasty respected the authority of the Ming rulers, at least nominally.

Like the founders of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.), Hongwu was extremely suspicious of the educated courtiers that advised him and, fearful that they might attempt to overthrow him, he successfully consolidated control of all aspect of government. The strict authoritarian control Hongwu wielded over the affairs of the country was due in part to the centralized system of government he inherited from the Monguls and largely kept intact. However, Hongwu replaced the Mongul bureaucrats who had ruled the country for nearly a century with native Chinese administrators. He also reinstituted the Confucian examination system that tested would-be civic officials on their knowledge of literature and philosophy. Unlike the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), which received most of its taxes from mercantile commerce, the Ming economy was based primarily on agriculture, reflecting both the peasant roots of its founder as well as the Confucian belief that trade was ignoble and parasitic.

Culturally, the greatest innovation of the Ming Dynasty was the introduction of the novel. Developed from the folk tales of traditional storytellers, these works were transcribed in the everyday vernacular language of the people. Advances in printmaking and the increasing population of urban dwellers largely contributed to the success of these books. Architecturally, the most famous monument of the Ming Dynasty is surely the complex of temples and palaces known as the Forbidden City that was constructed in Beijing after the third ruler of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Yongle, moved the capital there. Today, the Forbidded Palace remains one of the hallmarks of traditional Chinese architecture and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the vast nation.

Seven attendants wear emerald green robes attached on one side and tied at the waist with a sash. Their whitened faces accentuate their finely shaped eyes and small reddened mouths as well as their black hair that appears beneath the tall, rounded red caps. Although dressed in nearly identical attire, each attendant bears a mark that distinguishes one from the other-- this method was used by Chinese statuette artists for centuries to imbue each figure with spirit. One figure holds a red and black object in his arm and bears a crest on his robe. The others are distinguished by their pose, the appearance of their robes, or their facial features. The procession is complete with a white horse decked out in exquisite trappings--the bridle and rein are adorned with decorative studs and the amber glazed saddle is complimented with red and green saddle blankets. Wide-eyed and grinning, the horse displays its elegance and strength.

This Ming set of sancai glazed figurines depicts an aspect of Chinese political and social life. Tributary processions were common protocol at this time, the emperor requiring provincial lords to pay tribute and tax on a regular basis. Processions were also held for funerals, marriages, and rituals differing in grandeur depending on the status of the individuals involved and nature of the ceremony. Ming statuette art reflects the attempt to restore purely "Chinese" artistic genres with a healthy injection of Confucian aesthetic, political, and moral standards. Realistic depictions of daily life became popular themes among artists who were often patronized by the court. Under Xuande's reign (1426-35), the art industry flourished, producing many exquisite porcelain and ceramic pieces. This glazed set is a product of the artistic revival that occured throughout the Ming Dynasty. - (H.006)

 

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