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HOME : Chinese Art : Ming Dynasty : Ming Glazed Terracotta Offering Table
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Ming Glazed Terracotta Offering Table - H.1052
Origin: China
Circa: 1368 AD to 1644 AD
Dimensions: 9.25" (23.5cm) high
Collection: Chinese
Medium: Glazed Terracotta

Additional Information: Art Logic—Lam's Gallery, Hong Kong, 2002

Location: United States
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Upon leading a victorious rebellion against the foreign Mongul rulers of the Yuan Dynasty, a peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang seized control of China and founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368. As emperor, he founded his capital at Nanjing and adopted the name Hongwu as his reign title. Hongwu, literally meaning “vast military,” reflects the increased prestige of the army during the Ming Dynasty. Due to the very realistic threat still posed by the Mongols, Hongwu realized that a strong military was essential to Chinese prosperity. Thus, the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to be ruled over by an elite class of scholars was reconsidered. During the Ming Dynasty, China proper was reunited after centuries of foreign incursion and occupation. Ming troops controlled Manchuria, and the Korean Joseon Dynasty respected the authority of the Ming rulers, at least nominally.

Like the founders of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.), Hongwu was extremely suspicious of the educated courtiers that advised him and, fearful that they might attempt to overthrow him, he successfully consolidated control of all aspect of government. The strict authoritarian control Hongwu wielded over the affairs of the country was due in part to the centralized system of government he inherited from the Monguls and largely kept intact. However, Hongwu replaced the Mongul bureaucrats who had ruled the country for nearly a century with native Chinese administrators. He also reinstituted the Confucian examination system that tested would-be civic officials on their knowledge of literature and philosophy. Unlike the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), which received most of its taxes from mercantile commerce, the Ming economy was based primarily on agriculture, reflecting both the peasant roots of its founder as well as the Confucian belief that trade was ignoble and parasitic.

Culturally, the greatest innovation of the Ming Dynasty was the introduction of the novel. Developed from the folk tales of traditional storytellers, these works were transcribed in the everyday vernacular language of the people. Advances in printmaking and the increasing population of urban dwellers largely contributed to the success of these books. Architecturally, the most famous monument of the Ming Dynasty is surely the complex of temples and palaces known as the Forbidden City that was constructed in Beijing after the third ruler of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Yongle, moved the capital there. Today, the Forbidded Palace remains one of the hallmarks of traditional Chinese architecture and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the vast nation.

This offering table, overflowing with the bounteous fruits of the land and sea, represents a sumptuous feast that would have nourished the deceased throughout eternity. A tripod vessel stands in the center of the table. Such a container may have been used to heat or steam certain dishes. A pair of large teapots and candlestick holders flank this tripod vessel. Other delicacies are presented for our enjoyment: a pig’s head, an assortment of cakes, a bird, and fish. While the burial customs of ancient China had lost most of their original meanings by the time of the Ming, such offerings were continually carried out, often just for the sake of tradition. In this case, it was believed that the deceased must be provided for in the afterlife of all that was necessary in this world. Thus food, and feasting, would have been one of the foremost concerns. This offering table would have appeased the deceased’s appetite for all eternity. Today, it is a vivid reminder of the beauty and history of China, both culinary and artistic.
- (H.1052)


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