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HOME : Near Eastern Art : Cuneiform Tablets : Sumerian Cuneiform Tablet
Sumerian Cuneiform Tablet - AM.0086
Origin: Eastern Mediterranean
Circa: 2038 BC
Dimensions: 3.31" (8.4cm) high x 1.73" (4.4cm) wide
Collection: Ancient Writings

Location: Great Britain
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Sumerian cuneiform is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. First appearing in the 4th millennium BC in what is now Iraq, it was dubbed cuneiform (‘wedge-shaped’) because of the distinctive wedge form of the letters, created by pressing a reed stylus into wet clay. Early Sumerian writings were essentially pictograms, which became simplified in the early and mid 3rd millennium BC to a series of strokes, along with a commensurate reduction in the number of discrete signs used (from c.1500 to 600). The script system had a very long life and was used by the Sumerians as well as numerous later groups – notably the Assyrians, Elamites, Akkadians and Hittites – for around three thousand years. Certain signs and phonetic standards live on in modern languages of the Middle and Far East, but the writing system is essentially extinct. It was therefore cause for great excitement when the ‘code’ of ancient cuneiform was cracked by a group of English, French and German Assyriologists and philologists in the mid 19th century AD. This opened up a vital source of information about these ancient groups that could not have been obtained in any other way.

Cuneiform was used on monuments dedicated to heroic – and usually royal – individuals, but perhaps its most important function was that of record keeping. The palace-based society at Ur and other large urban centres was accompanied by a remarkably complex and multifaceted bureaucracy, which was run by professional administrators and a priestly class, all of whom were answerable to central court control. Most of what we know about the way the culture was run and administered comes from cuneiform tablets, which record the everyday running of the temple and palace complexes in minute detail, as in the present case. The Barakat Gallery has secured the services of Professor Lambert (University of Birmingham), a renowned expert in the decipherment and translation of cuneiform, to examine and process the information on these tablets. The following is a transcription of his analysis of this tablet:

‘The tablet is written in a clear scribal hand. One piece has been re-attached at the bottom, with some loss of surface on the obverse but little on the reverse. Otherwise the script is very clear. This is an administrative document listing rations issued to official state messengers. It is dated to the 9th year of Amar-Suena, third king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, c. 2038 B.C.


1…., 2 sila of soup, 2 fish: Mr Ili-sukkal, king’s messenger when he went for sesame 1…., 2 sila of soup, 2 fish: Mr Nur-ili, … when he went to the governor 1 roast (?) sheep, 2 sila of soup, 2 fish: Mr Huhu….in, regent when he went [for]…. 1 ..[…], 2 sila of soup, [2 fish]: Mr ..[….] king’s [messenger] when [he went…..] 2 [sila of soup, 2] fish: Mr Ur-sukkal, king’s messenger when he went for the guard for roasted barley 1 sila of soup, 1 [fish], Mr Lu-Shara, king’s messenger when he went to Der. Total: 1 roasted (?) sheep Total: 4 …… Total: 9 sila of soup Total: 9 fish Disbursement of the month Festival of Shulgi Year: the high priestess of Nanna of Karzida was installed Left edge: 6th day

A sila was a measure of capacity, about .85 of a litre. This tablet varies from previously published tablets of this category by explaining the purpose of some of these missions.’ - (AM.0086)


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