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HOME : African & Tribal Art : Nok, Katsina, Sokoto : Nok Seated Male Figure
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Nok Seated Male Figure - DK.152 (LSO)
Origin: Nigeria
Circa: 300 BC to 300 AD
Dimensions: 14.75" (37.5cm) high
Collection: African Art
Medium: Terracotta
Condition: Very Fine


Location: United States
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Description
This beautiful and elegant ceramic depiction of a seated man was made by the Nok people of Nigeria, at the very start of the first millennium AD. The piece shows a man sitting on a stool, with his left leg crossed under his right and his chin resting on his right knee. He holds an unidentified object (resting against his thigh) in his left hand, while his right hand is level with his head, cupped and flexed outwards from the wrist. His form is extraordinary. While his limbs are roughly proportional to his body, if somewhat slender, his head is enormously elongated into what is almost a conical shape, flaring to its maximum diameter at around the level of the jawline before narrowing off to a point at the chin end, and with a rounded apex to the head. The apex of the nose, along with the moustache, mouth and beard are all compressed into the last third of the face, with a large plain section before reaching the eyes, represented as drilled triangles. The figure is wearing a penis sheath that leans against the left lower leg, as well as a series of neck rings, a belt and a plain, rounded cap.

The astonishing artistry and early date of Nok pieces makes them among the most important artworks on the African continent, and they occupy a major position for analysts of African cultural systematic as well as in terms of their sheer aesthetic value. Currently, comparatively little is known of the Nok culture. Flourishing between 900 BC and 200 AD, the Nok “culture” is technically a misnomer, for the artistic traditions it represents are the only common characteristics shared by different Iron-Age agriculturally-based communities that differed in all other respects. Their artworks, however, constitute the most sophisticated and formalised early African artistic tradition outside Egypt. Technically, they are very unusual because of the manner in which coiled and subtractive sculpting methods were used to capture likenesses. Aesthetically, they are both naturalistic and expressionist, with highly distinctive elongated forms, triangular eyes, pierced pupils/nostrils and elaborate hairstyles.

Substyles of the Nok tradition include the Jemaa Style, the Katsina Ala Style (elongated heads) and the Sokoto Style (elongated monobrow foreheads, lending a severe expression to the face) and random variants such as the Herm Statues of Kuchamfa (simplified cylindrical figures topped with normal heads) and the “standard” three-dimensional standing figures, which subscribe to the Jemaa style. It is to the Katsina Ala group that the current piece can be attributed. The function of the art is unclear, although the care with which they are executed has led some to claim they represent nobility, or perhaps ancestors to which obeisance and sacrifices were offered.

As stated, the role of these pieces is uncertain. The largest ones are believed to have been placed in structures that had ceremonial or ritual importance at the time, thus occupying a prominent social position within the community. Smaller ones may have been personal or domestic talismans or deities/spirits. However, when it comes to the identity of the people portrayed in the art, rather more guesswork is required. Men, women and fantastical personages are all portrayed. Portraiture of important people – such as chiefs and associated figures – might be one possibility. One might also argue that strong feminine or masculine traits imply that the sculptor was emphasising the importance of fertility or virility, and all the collateral benefits it implies (success in agriculture etc). Fantastical sculptures are likely to represent characters such as spirits, mythical figures (such as non-historical ancestors) or shamans. The current piece conveys authority and prestige in every aspect of his appearance, and while we cannot be certain at this remove from its date of manufacture, it is likely that it represents an important person associated with warfare or leadership, such as a chief or a deceased ancestor to the tribe. The raiment and the stool - which is always associated with prestige in later periods, at least - lead us towards this conclusion. Whatever he represents, though, his aesthetic and historic credentials are perfect; this is a world-class piece of ancient art. - (DK.152 (LSO))

 

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