Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex
(BMAC) is a modern collective term referring to
the combined area of archaeological discoveries
that point to the existence of a hitherto unknown
uniform bronze age civilization in central Asia
News of this lost civilization began leaking out in
the 1970s, when archaeologists came to dig in
the southern reaches of the Soviet Union and in
Bactria is the ancient Greek name for northern
Afghanistan and the northeast corner of Iran,
while Margiana is again an ancient Greek name
for what is today Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
Through the region runs the Amu Dar'ya River,
which was known in Greek history as the Oxus
Western scholars subsequently used that
landmark to dub the newly found culture the
The complex mainly stretches within a large
continuous zone between southern Turkmenistan
and Northern Afghanistan, and smaller adjacent
areas of Iran, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The exact identity of the BMAC culture has yet to
be fully identified due to the lack of written
evidence at the sites excavated up to know.
However the material evidence which has been
brought to light is strongly indicative of proto
Indo-Iranian and proto-Zoroastrian practices,
which offers a very unique testimony of what the
common culture of the original indo-Iranians in
the area was before they split off into the Indic
and Iranian branches.