This unusual sculpture is an ivory kalimbangoma or iginga sculpture from the Bwami secret society, the central foundation for social structures in the Lega tribal group. It is highly schematic, depicting a seated, oblong-headed figure with a slightly obese, leant-back body. It has nugatory legs, no arms and no sexually-definable characteristics. The figure leans to its left, lending it a slightly inquisitive expression. The head is a vertically-oriented oblong, with a solid forehead and chin; the sides of the oblong are hatched with horizontal gouged lines. The face is approximately conventional, with coffee-bean eyes, an elongated nose and a wide, incised mouth. The lateral permits appreciation of the pieces’ geometric construction. The figure is essentially a slanted column with the legs wrapped around from the rear to the anterior aspect. The face/head is an entirely distinct block which gives the impression of having been added to the central column secondarily. The item is unpainted, and has a dark, glossy patina from repeated handling and – probably – oil libation.
The Lega people are amongst Africa’s best-known carvers and artists. Currently settled in the Kivu province of the eastern DRC, they believe themselves to be descended from an eponymous ancestor who migrated into the area from what is now Uganda. They are also known as Warega and Balega, based on corruptions of their actual name by neighbouring groups and Arab traders, respectively. They live in small villages and consider themselves parts of distinct lineages, although to outsiders the “Lega” group is a well-defined unit. They are further defined on the basis of their modes of subsistence. The western Lega settled in the forest (malinga), where they rely on hunting and gathering, while the eastern groups live on poor soils, further denuded by their mode of slash-and-burn agriculture.
Lega government is based along the lines of a gerontocracy; and balanced very finely between leading members of different lineages. The Lega believe in a trio of gods named Kinkunga, Kalaga and Kakinga, and that when humans die they will enter a subterranean afterworld known as Uchimu. Social life is structured by three main social institutions: family and kinship (ibuta), circumcision rituals (ibuta) and the Bwami society. Of these, the latter is perhaps the most powerful. It is centred upon the guidance of young people to moral maturity, although it also fulfils a range of other political socio-political, economic and artistic functions. Much of the paraphernalia produced by the Lega pertains to the workings of the Bwami society. Examples include initiation objects – that are sometimes ground away and the resulting dust used as a healing device – isengo (lit. “heavy things” used in healing), binumbi (publicly visible insignia), bingonzengonze (“things of play”) and the large category of sculpted objects/assemblages known as bitungwa. Within the latter there are numerous sub-categories along the lines of size, material, ownership and type. This applies to all manner of objects, especially kalimbangoma and iginga figures. All members of the Bwami own one of these, which is usually cared for, oiled and kept by their wife. The higher the rank, the more impressive the figure. The members of Yananio and the lowest level of kindi own kalmibangoma figures, while the elite members of Kindi and the highest-ranking woman may own iginga (pl. maginga) pieces, which are the most coveted of all initiation pieces.
In general terms, Lega figures are used by members of the Bwami society, who commission the figure with a general description of how it should look (pose, material etc) but who leave the details to the carver. All figures tend to represent aspects of the ideal Lega male – a large forehead, a shaved head (sometimes with a cap) and a straight posture – and are endowed with the characteristics of a Bwami initiate: washed, shining and proud. Some figures are carved for the aesthetic of the ugly, used as cautionary tales for initiates. However, these cases are isolated: western art history approaches have been unable to read the cultural implications of Lega pieces as most of these were removed from their highly-specific context without recording of data concerning their use, name and function. It is thus uncommon to be able to identify sculptures as representing specific people or characters in Lega mythology or history.
This is a high-ranking ivory Bwami society sculpture. It is either a kalimbangoma or iginga figure, which were commissioned by the two highest rankings of Bwami members. It is also an extreme example of the Lega’s capacity to contort and deconstruct the human body in their artwork. The identity of the individual portrayed is obscure, although the fact that s/he has been represented in such a prestigious piece implies that it was a figure of some importance. The eyes appear to have been modelled in the likeness of cowrie shells, which are themselves prestige items in Lega society. The figure has a fine gloss and seems to have been handled extensively, as befits this important piece of magico-religious paraphernalia.
Small ivory figures of this sort are among the Lega’s most potent symbols, and they are treated with considerable reverence, only being seen by others upon the demise of the owner, when they may be displayed on his grave. This is an unusual and attractive piece of African art.
Further reading: Cameron, E. 2001. The Art of the Lega. UCLA Press.