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HOME : Chinese Art : Ming Dynasty : Ming Wooden Polychrome Sculpture of Guanyin
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Ming Wooden Polychrome Sculpture of Guanyin - PF.2359
Origin: China
Circa: 1368 AD to 1644 AD
Dimensions: 37" (94.0cm) high x 9" (22.9cm) wide
Catalogue: V7
Collection: Chinese
Medium: Wood And Paint

Location: United States
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Upon leading a victorious rebellion against the foreign Mongul rulers of the Yuan Dynasty, a peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang seized control of China and founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368. As emperor, he founded his capital at Nanjing and adopted the name Hongwu as his reign title. Hongwu, literally meaning “vast military,” reflects the increased prestige of the army during the Ming Dynasty. Due to the very realistic threat still posed by the Mongols, Hongwu realized that a strong military was essential to Chinese prosperity. Thus, the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to be ruled over by an elite class of scholars was reconsidered. During the Ming Dynasty, China proper was reunited after centuries of foreign incursion and occupation. Ming troops controlled Manchuria, and the Korean Joseon Dynasty respected the authority of the Ming rulers, at least nominally.

Like the founders of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.), Hongwu was extremely suspicious of the educated courtiers that advised him and, fearful that they might attempt to overthrow him, he successfully consolidated control of all aspect of government. The strict authoritarian control Hongwu wielded over the affairs of the country was due in part to the centralized system of government he inherited from the Monguls and largely kept intact. However, Hongwu replaced the Mongul bureaucrats who had ruled the country for nearly a century with native Chinese administrators. He also reinstituted the Confucian examination system that tested would-be civic officials on their knowledge of literature and philosophy. Unlike the Song Dynasty (960-1279 A.D.), which received most of its taxes from mercantile commerce, the Ming economy was based primarily on agriculture, reflecting both the peasant roots of its founder as well as the Confucian belief that trade was ignoble and parasitic.

Culturally, the greatest innovation of the Ming Dynasty was the introduction of the novel. Developed from the folk tales of traditional storytellers, these works were transcribed in the everyday vernacular language of the people. Advances in printmaking and the increasing population of urban dwellers largely contributed to the success of these books. Architecturally, the most famous monument of the Ming Dynasty is surely the complex of temples and palaces known as the Forbidden City that was constructed in Beijing after the third ruler of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Yongle, moved the capital there. Today, the Forbidded Palace remains one of the hallmarks of traditional Chinese architecture and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the vast nation.

Noted for her kindness, Guanyin is an ancient Boddhisattva. In Buddhism, Boddhisattvas are beings who have attained enlightenment, but renounce the goal of Nirvana, a state characterized by freedom from pain, suffering and the external world. Instead, these benevolent Boddhisattvas minister eternally to relieve the sufferings of all creatures, like Archangels, passing from the remote heaven to the world of men. Indeed, this carved wood depiction of the Boddhisattva Guanyin emanates an other- worldiness that bespeaks of spirited compassion and kindness. The artist who created this sculpture captures through skillful carving a beautiful image, her serene face radiating devotion and tenderness. Masterful chiseling of her garments results in an ethereal quality that flows like the ancient tides. In her raised right hand she holds a portion of her garment that magically becomes a cobra, the ancient Dravidian symbol for a water spirit; evidencing Guanyin's close bond with all the natural world. Whispers of her once colorful image are seen in the soft, subtle colors that still cling to her beautiful form, now serving to accentuate her mystical qualities. When we behold this work of art we are at once elevated to a height of aesthetic and spiritual awareness that transcends both time and culture. - (PF.2359)


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