13 bronze coins of the Roman Procurator Valerius Gratus reigned: 15-26 A.D. 3 bronze coins of Roman Procurator Antonius Felix reigned: 52-60 A.D. 1 bronze coin of Shimon bar Kokhba minted ca. 132/133 A.D.
With the banishment of Herod Archelaus in 6 A.D., the territories of Eretz Israel came under Roman domination. The area was annexed to the provincia Syria and the administration, based at Caesarea, harbor city built by the Herod I, w as headed by a procurator who w as responsible to the governor of Syria Valerius Gratus was appointed procurator of Israel during the reign of the Emperor Tiberius in 15 ad. He remained in this fast for almost a dozen years, and issued coins during most of his rule. It w as during this period that the seeds of growing Jewish unrest were sown, and Jesus worked as an obscure carpenter in Galilee. With the exception of the coins of Pontius Pilatus, the coins of the procurators do not carry symbols abhorrent to the Jews. The coins generally featured depictions of agricultural symbols, amphora or goblets. These ancient coins of Valerius depict palm branches and wreaths, along with Greek inscriptions.
Antonius Felix, one of the procurators of Judea, issued coins during only two of the nine years of his procuratorship. These coins feature a depiction of a six-branch palm tree bearing two bunches of grapes, and spears crossed, surrounded by an inscription.
Sixty-two years after the destruction of the second temple during the Jewish revolt against Rome, the second major war against the Romans broke out-the Bar Kokhba revolt. Carefully and secretly prepared, this war w as prompted by Hadrian’s wish to inst all Greco-Roman culture with even greater force. The spiritual leader of the revolt was Rabbi Akiva, while the military and civil leader was Simeon Bar Koseva (Shimon bar Kokhba). This war was much fiercer than the first Jewish revolt, and the Romans were initially hard pressed. The twenty-second legion was defeated and wiped out. The exact extent of the territory controlled by Bar Kokhba is not quite clear, but he certainly held the Hebron district, part of Idumea and the Dead Sea region. It is not known for certain if he took Jerusalem, if only for a short time. The last major stand was at Bethar, and the war came to an end following Bar Kokhba's death.