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HOME : Pre-Columbian Art : Toltec Art : Toltec Plumbate Head Effigy Vessel
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Toltec Plumbate Head Effigy Vessel - PF.2374
Origin: Soconusco, Guatemala
Circa: 550 AD to 950 AD
Dimensions: 3" (7.6cm) high x 2.875" (7.3cm) wide
Collection: Pre-Columbian
Medium: Terracotta

Location: United States
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The Toltec civilization first gained ascendany in the Valley of Mexico around 900 A.D., after the fall of Teotihuacan. Although their origins and early history are obscure, the Toltecs appear to have ancient ties to both the Mixtec and the Zapotec. The word Toltec means “master builders” in the Nahuatl language, a testament to the sophistication of Toltec constructions. Their art and architecture was highly influenced by Teotihuacan as well as the ancient Olmec culture. The Toltecs were technologically advanced, capable of smelting metals. Their stonework was impeccable as the ruins of Tula demonstrate. This archaeological site is believed to be Tollan, the legendary capital of the Toltec civilization referred to in a number of postconquest sources. Their social structure was headed by an elite class of warriors. Excavation have uncovered the ceremonial center that included a pyramid structure topped by a temple dedicated to the hero-god Quetzalcoatl.

This stunning Toltec vessel, known as plumbate ware, is distinguished by its attractive glassy luster, which was produced by covering the vessel in a slip high in iron and aluminum content and then firing the pot at high temperatures. Greatly prized as a luxury item, plumbate vessels such as this formed a unique component in the repertoire of Mesoamerican art. During the height of the Toltec civilization, plumbate works were produced at only one place: on the Pacific slope of the Soconusco region in modern Guatemala. Furthermore, the process by which it was made seems to have been a closely guarded secret. Such wares were highly valued throughout Mesoamerica and were traded along commercial networks that extended as far as Panama. Plumbate was so desirable in part because it maintains an exceptional hardness that can be scarcely scratched with steel.

With a sage-like face that addresses the world through open mouth and slanted eyes, this Toltec male head echoes the secrets of the ancient culture that produced such a masterpiece of expressiveness. A striking nose, so typical of Toltec portraiture, is the focal point of a face filled with timeless mystery. Ornamented ears, an elaborate headband and a bearded chin frame his venerated face, adding to its noble stature. The leaded clay gives a delicate shine to this small pot, its soft reflective light equally as beautiful as it was so many centuries ago. How fortunate we are that this gem of ancient Mayan artistry is with us today, stimulating our imagination and warming our hearts. - (PF.2374)


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